Protagonist Role of Opioidergic System on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Associated Pain
- Marjan Nikbakhtzadeh Fatemeh Mohtashami Borzadaran Elham Zamani Mohammad Shabani
- Psychiatry Investigation
- 제17권 제6호
- 등재여부 : KCI등재
- 506 - 516 (11 pages)
Objective Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain often co-occur. Studies have shown an interaction between pain and PTSD. In this narrative review, we aim to support conducting comprehensive studies by describing PTSD, pain and determining whether opioidergic system, its agonist and antagonist manipulation could positively or negatively affect PTSD symptoms and concurrent pain.Methods Term searches was done in Google Scholar, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science and PubMed databases as well as hand searching in key resource journals from 1979–2019.Results There are a lot of contradictions and disputes when endogenous opioidergic system and opioidergic antagonist system are studied in PTSD patients. Exogenous morphine administration in PTSD patients can decrease the symptoms of PTSD but it doesn’t have a pain reduction effect to an acceptable level. Beta-endorphin as an endogenous opioid is effective in pain reduction in the moment of events but after minutes to hours, the endorphins withdrawal syndrome leads to exaggerated intrusive thoughts and flashbacks of PTSD, which exacerbate the pain. It has also been shown that naloxone, as an opioidergic antagonist, can reduce or increase the PTSD symptoms and its associated pain.Conclusion Data suggest different roles of opioidergic system and their antagonist in pain control and mood in PTSD. However, further investigations need to be done in order to reveal the role of endogenous opioidergic system and opioidergic antagonist system as a mediator in PTSD patients suffering from acute or chronic pain.
PTSD AND THE EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS AND EXOGENOUS OPIOIDS
PAIN AND THE EFFECT OF ENDOGENOUS OR EXOGENOUS OPIOIDS ON IT
HOW IS THE MUTUAL MAINTENANCE RELATION BETWEEN PTSD AND PAIN?