더덕의 체세포발생과 자엽형태에 미치는 탄수화물과 삼투제의 영향
Effects of carbohydrates and osmoticum on the somatic embryogenesis and cotyledon morphology of Codonopsis lanceolata L.
Embryogenic calli from Codonopsis lanceolata L. were cultured in MS liquid media and supplemented with various concentrations of primary carbon sources to study the effects of carbohydrates and osmoticum on somatic embryogenesis and somatic embryo morphology. Sucrose, glucose, and a combination of 3% sucrose and various concentrations of sorbitol or mannitol as osmoticum were used as carbon supplements. The maximum number of somatic embryos per flask was greater in media exclusively supplemented with 3% sucrose (128.29) than exclusively glucose-supplemented media (47.67) and either supplement combination of 3% sucrose and osmoticum (95.67 with mannitol and 114.00 with sorbitol). The number of somatic embryos gradually decreased in media with increasing concentrations of combined osmoticum supplement. Decreases also occurred in the highest concentrations of sucrose- and glucose-supplemented media. The total frequency of somatic embryos with two cotyledons was slightly higher in medium with 3% + mannitol (24.09%) compared with exclusively sucrose (21.52%), glucose (21.22%), or 3% sucrose + sorbitol (22.13%). As concentrations of sucrose and glucose increased, the occurrence of two cotyledons and trumpet cotyledons gradually decreased and the occurrence of polycotyledon and globular stage embryos increased. Furthermore, as concentrations of 3% sucrose and osmoticum increased, the occurrence of trumpet cotyledon and globular stage embryos increased and the occurrence of polycotyledon gradually decreased. These results demonstrated that the somatic embryogenesis and occurrence of cotyledon morphology were influenced by the concentration of carbohydrates and combinations of 3% sucrose and osmoticum supplements.
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