Forces and moments delivered by a straight wire connecting two orthodontic brackets are statically indeterminate and cannot be estimated using the classical equations of static equilibrium. To identify the mechanics of such two-bracket systems, Burstone and Koenig used the principles of linear beam theory to estimate the resulting force systems. In the original publication, however, it remains unclear how the force systems were calculated because no reference or computational details on the underlying principles have been provided. Using the moment carry-over principle and the relative angulation of the brackets, a formula was derived to calculate the relative moments of the two brackets. Because of the moment equilibrium, the vertical forces that exist as a forcecouple on the two brackets can also be calculated. The accuracy of the proposed approach can be validated using previously published empirical data.

INTRODUCTION

MOMENTS

MOMENT CARRY-OVER

VERTICAL FORCES (MOMENT-EQUILIBRIUM)