본 연구는 양명의 良知說에 기초한 지행합일에 대한 생각의 문제점을 살펴보고 그에 대한 대안으로서 듀이 철학의 아이디어에서 유추해낸 총체적 지식 즉 總知의 관점에 기초한 지행합일의 생각을 탐구하였다. 양명의 이론에 대해서는 양지의 선험성과 자명명각에 입각한 지행합일의 아이디어와 치양지의 관점에서 보는 지행합일의 아이디어가 양립하기 어렵다는 점을 지적하였다. 그 대안으로 듀이의 형이상학과 인식론을 기초로 양지 대신에 인간 특유의 능력으로서 천리의 아이디어와 총지로서의 마음의 개념을 제안하였다. 여기서 교육 또는 도덕교육은 양지를 회복하는 것이 아니라 총지의 계속적 성장으로 정의된다.
The main purpose of this essay is to inquire into and make clearer the meaning of the unity of knowledge and action by synthesizing and incorporating the philosophical thoughts of Yang-Ming and Dewey. The notion of the unity is originally formulated by Yang-Ming, which is based upon his theories of Mind is Principle and innate knowledge of the good (liangzhi). According to the theory, innate knowledge of the good or Heavenly Principle(tianli) which is assumed to be acquired by nature has the two kinds of innate ability of self-revelation: self-knowing of the morally good and self-doing in accordance with the good. The liangzhi s power of self-revelation makes it possible to unite and integrate knowledge with action. He puts forward the theory of extension of liangzhi after several years. The theory of the extension does not completely agree with the theory of knowledge-action unity because its basic assumption cannot be in harmony with the liangzhi s operation of self-revelation. Besides, one of the fundamental problems of Yang-Ming s theory is that the existence and justification of innate knowledge of the good have been continually questioned and disputed. The essay endeavors to reformulate his theory with the help of Dewey s philosophy of experience including his metaphysic of empirical naturalism. The idea of innate knowledge of the good is proposed to be replaced by innate ability to interact with the world and nature by characteristically humanistic way. Also it is argued that the conception of mind which solely consists of liangzhi by Yang-Ming supercede with the concept of mind as whole knowledge. Whole knowledge is constructed by experience. It is established by getting together, accumulating, and uniting all of the cognitive and noncognitive knowledges which have been acquired by all kinds of experience carried out after birth. Whole ideal takes the heart of whole knowledge, which is formed by putting together and integrating all of the ideals. Thus, whole knowledge has the entire power to guide and control one s own activities. In view of the conception of whole knowledge, knowledge is united and integrated with action. Whole knowledge is the cause of action, action is the only source of whole knowledge; also, whole knowledge is the beginning of doing, doing is the perfection of whole knowledge. In doing so, Yang-Ming s basic conception of knowledge-action unity is able to have the better and positive position to be rationalized and justified with respect to the contemporary minds and philosophical thoughts.
Ⅱ. 良知에서의 知行合一
Ⅲ. 總知에서의 지행합일