본 연구의 목적은 이덕무(李德懋)의 『사소절』에 들어있는 “작은 예절” 또는 행위규범이 어떤 의미를 가지는가를 탐색하는 데 있다. 그 의미가 올바로 규정된다면 오늘날 한국사람의 도덕적 규범의 원천으로 될 수도 있다는 가능성을 확보하는 것이다. 또한 이 도덕적 규범이 한국인의 정체성을 확보하는 데 도움이 되기 위해서는 교육학적인 고려를 할 필요가 있는 것이다. 이 일을 보다 정확하게 하기 위해서 연구자는 이덕무 자신이 마음에 간직하고 그 관점에서 저작했으리라고 추측되는 형사(形似)-사의(寫意)의 개념 틀을 적용하여 『사소절』을 해석하고자 한 것이다. 원래 형사-사의의 개념 틀은 화단에서 사용하였던 개념 틀이였다. 이덕무는 이 개념틀을 문학에 적용하여 문학에 관한 자신의 관점을 정립하였다. 본 연구는 형사-사의의 개념 틀을 『사소절』에 적용함으로써 작은 예절과 큰 예절의 관계를 그림 같이 설명하여 이해를 높이려고 한 것이다. 이 일을 통하여 사소절에 들어있는 내용이 과거에 죽은 규범으로 남는 것이 아니라 오늘날에도 여전히 한국인의 마음속에 살아 움직이는 규범의 원천이 될 수 있도록 하려고 시도하였다. 이 과정에서 피터즈의 ‘이성과 습관’의 관계를 검토함으로써 현대 우리의 삶에도 여전히 어떤 의미를 줄 수 있다는 것을 밝혀 보려고 시도한 것이다.
In this article, I would like to explore the educational meaning of Sa-So-Jeol [Lee, Duk-Mu(1741-1793) in the light of the conceptual frame - “Drawing a picture as it is“(形似) and ”Picturing the mind as it acquired “(寫意). The above conceptual term is originally derived from painting circles. Now, I will apply this conceptual frame(形似-寫意) with the interpretation of Sa-So-Jeol (士小節). And I will identify the meaning of small rules(小節) in the light of the above conceptual frame. Once again small rules relate to the problem of habit and reason , which is the modern western trend in the theory of moral education. According to the Li Ki(禮記), Some ceremonies are great, and some small; Some are manifest and some minute, The great should not be diminished , nor the small increased. No one can enter an apartment but by the door. In this quotation, I have taken notice of the following sentence no one can enter an apartment but by the door. I think that this idea will relate to no one can enter Reason s palace unless one gets through habit s yard. In the preface of Sa-So-Jeol , Lee, Duk-Mu spoke as follows, In order to diminish misdeeds, we should always observe small rules in everyday life. But people does not like to observe small rules. If people will not devote themselves to learning of small rules, they will not practice the great moral obligations. The question now arises: What is the standard to distinguish between great and small? In order to answer the above -stated question, I will take a close look at the next three questions. 1) What is the definition of Drawing a picture as it is (形似) and Picturing the mind as it acquired(寫意)“? 2) What is the meaning of great and small rules in light of the above conceptual frame? How is the great and small rules expressed in Sa-So-Jeol ? 3) What kind of suggestions does Sa-So-Jeol give us the current moral education? First of all, What is Drawing a picture as it is (形似)? It is the meaning of reproduction . The reproduction means the process of producing a copy, especially a copy of a work of art, less exact than a Replica. In case of Lee Duk-Mu, we can find the reproduction of natural landscape as it is, a butterfly and a farmer to cultivate field with an ox. etc. The reproduction relates to the problem of the expression of mind. Every human behavior is an outward expression of the mind like Drawing a picture as it is“(形似). But is it possible to reproduce or to draw a thing without any mind or any idea? What is Picturing the mind as it acquired(寫意)? According to Lee, Duk-Mu, Picturing the mind as it acquired is writer s spirit, mind . Particularly he had stressed the need of awakening . Therefore it is beyond doubt that relates to a way to acquire the unmanifested mind. The morality refers to the moral aspect of the unmanifested mind. Then, what is the relation of two concepts? This relation refers to reason and habit. So then, the theoretical problem of Sa-So-Jeol (士小節) written by Lee,Duk-Mu gives rise to two types of problem as follows; Is it possible for any one to enter Picturing the mind as it acquired (寫意) but by Drawing a picture as it is (形似), or Does Drawing a picture as it is (形似) lie to already embed “Picturing the mind as it acquired (寫意)? On the contrary is it possible to set up? Those theoretical problems arise from The 『LI KI』 -that is, No one can enter an apartment but by the door. The above-stated problems are also related to the paradox of reason and habit suggested by R.S Peters modern moral educational theory. According to him, habit is different from reason, Therefore it is obviously impossible to reach the court of palace getting through the yard of habit . In spite of this, if it is possible to say so, it corresponds to paradox
Ⅲ. ‘형사-사의’의 개념 틀과 『사소절』
Ⅳ. 현대 도덕교육에 주는 시사