도끼형석기는 후기구석기시대 후반에 등장하는 양면박리기법으로 제작한 석기이다. 동북아시아의 후기구석기시대에는 신석기시대로 이행하는 과정에서 다양한 도구들이 등장하게 되는데 도끼형 석기도 그 중 하나이다. 도끼형석기는 러시아의 시베리아, 일본열도 등 동북아시아 전역에 분포하고 있는 양상을 보이고 있다. 하지만 지금까지 한반도 내에서 도끼형석기의 출토 수는 다른 지역에 비해 매우 적다. 그러나 최근 발굴성과로 수양개 Ⅵ지구 2문화층에서 세형돌날과 나뭇잎모양의 찌르개와 더불어 도끼형석기가 출토되었다. 수양개 Ⅵ지구의 도끼형석기를 분석하여 본 결과, 도끼형 석기의 소재는 주로 횡장격지를 이용하였으며 차선으로 종장격지, 파편 등을 사용하였다. 평면형태는 타원형이 완성형인 것으로 확인되었으며, 날은 단면 혹은 양면으로 가공하였다. 필요에 따라 기부도 여러 형태로 가공한 것이 보인다. 도끼형석기가 등장한 시기는 한반도의 경우는 절대연대 값이 가장 이른 전주 송천동 유적에서부터 수양개 Ⅵ지구까지 28,000 BP~18,000 BP가량의 시기에 등장한다. 수양개 유적을 제외한 타유적에서는 도끼형석기가 1~3점 정도만 나타나는데, 이는 사용목적에 따라 제한적으로 소비하였던 것으로 생각된다. 수양개 유적은 도끼형석기를 새기개나 끝날긁개와 함께 가죽가공용도로 주로 사용하였다. 하지만 도끼형석기는 이전 연구사례를 통하여 본다면 가죽가공용도 외에 목재가공용도 등으로 사용하였을 것으로 생각된다. 도끼형석기는 후기구석기시대 후반에 등장하여 오랜 기간 활용되었으며, 동북아시아 전역에 분포하는 출토양상을 보여준다. 도끼형석기와 같은 양면박리기법으로 제작한 석기들은 후에 신석기시대에도 형태가 변화되어 존속되어 사용되는 것으로 생각된다.
The Chisel Type Tool is a stone tool manufactured by biface technology, which was appeared in latter of the Upper Paleolithic. In the Upper Paleolithic in Northeast Asia, a various tools were emerged in the transition to Neolithic, and one of them was the Chisel Type Tool. It is shown that the Chisel Type Tool was widely distributed over all Northeast Asia, including Russia, Siberia and the Japanese Archipelago. However, the number of excavated Chisel Type Tool in the Korean Peninsula so far is very small compared to other regions. However, as a result of recent excavations, the Chisel Type Tool was excavated in company with the micro-blade and leaf shaped Point in multiple layer 2 of Suyanggae Loc.VI. As these are all types of artifacts that was appeared at the transition period and are important artifacts that show the tool change of human, the research of Chisel Type Tool at cultural layer 2 of Suyanggae Loc. VI is necessary. Hence, the writer would like to take the Chisel Type Tool, which was excavated on the Korean Peninsula, as a major research target. Because the number of excavated Chisel Type Tool on the Korean Peninsula so far was small, there has not been performed properly for the analysis of the Chisel Type Tool s type or technical form.As a result of recent excavations, the Chisel Type Tool, which has been excavated in large numbers at Suyanggae Loc.VI, is an example for the largest number of excavated within a single relic site on the Korean Peninsula up to now. As a result of analyzing the Chisel Type Tool of Suyanggae Loc.VI, the materials of the Chisel Type Tool used flake mainly, and the elongate flake and debris were used as the next alternative. The planar shape was identified that an ellipse type was a completion type, and the blades were manufactured to a single side or bi-side. It was shown that the hole portions were also manufactured in various forms as needed. As the manufacturing technique, it is assumed that it was done a steep diagonal flaking to get the materials and the vertical flaking and vertical perfusing to get the shape. In the case of the Korean Peninsula, the time that the Chisel Type Tool was appeared at the period of 28,000 BP to 18,000 BP, from the Songcheon-dong relic site, Jeonju, where the absolute age value was the earliest, to Suyanggae Loc.Ⅵ. In other sites except for the Suyanggae relic site, only 1 to 3 pieces of the Chisel Type Tool was appeared, which seems to have been used restrictively depending on the purpose of use. In the Suyanggae site, the Chisel Type Tool was mainly used as leather manufacturing use together with burin or end-scraper. However, seeing through previous researches, the Chisel Type Tool also seems to be used for wood manufacturing use besides leather manufacturing use. It is shown that the Chisel Type Tool emerged later in the Upper Paleolithic and has been used for a long time, and the excavated patterns are distributed all over Northeast Asia. Stone tools manufactured with biface technology, such as the Chisel Type Tool, seems to be used later in Neolithic by transformed and survived, as well. When becoming the middle of Neolithic, the hunting tools had been changed as follows; the Chisel Type Tool, which was manufactured by biface technology, was transformed into axes and digging tools, and the Point was transformed into with arrowheads. The Stone Age culture of the latter of Upper Paleolithic, which was appeared together with the Chisel Type Tool, is a stone tool culture that spread along with respective cultural characteristics all over Northeast Asia, including Siberia, the Korean Peninsula, and the Japanese archipelago, the shape was gradually changed and survived until Neolithic.
Ⅱ. 도끼형석기의 정의와 명칭
Ⅲ. 수양개 Ⅵ지구 도끼형석기 기술형태적 분석
Ⅳ. 도끼형석기의 확산