‘老’ refers to the old man with the characteristics of being aged in the original meaning to be aged (adjective), which is a metonymy of substituting the whole with a part . In combination with nouns, ‘老’ uses a lot of metaphorical expressions that are understood through animals closest to the attributes of people with aged characteristics, plants and objects. ‘老’ can be extended to the meaning of the survival time, duration, recognition time, and existence time of a person, animal, plant, or object are long , or the survival time is over , which can be said to be a metonymy of substituting cause with result . An experienced target respected by people on a positive level and a target with banal thoughts, habits, nature, and personality on the negative level can also be conceptualized and expressed as ‘老’.
Ⅱ. 의미 확장과 개념적 은유, 환유
Ⅲ. 老 의 의미 확장과 인지적 해석