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KCI우수등재 학술저널

신탁법상 수탁자의 파산과 수익자의 보호

The Bankruptcy of a Trustee in Korean Trust Law

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Trust, which is known as a unique product of the English legal system, has been transplanted into Korea in the form of the statute in 1961. Although Korea belongs to one of the civil law countries, the differences of the two legal systems have not been debated a lot. The author argues that we need to focus on the differences and try to make the trust more adaptable to the civil law principles. One of the problems which hold the directions for the argument is related to the bankruptcy of the trustee. Korean trust code stipulates that the trust property does not belong to the bankruptcy estate(§ 22). It also declares that the trustee s creditors cannot levy or execute the trust property(§ 21). However, it is not easy to explain this result, because it basically says that some part of a person s property does not liable to her creditors claims. In Anglo-american law, the trust property does not belong to the bankruptcy estate because the equitable title to the trust property belongs to the beneficiary. As we do not know the law/equity dichotomy in Korea, we cannot accept that explanation. The author argues that we need to start to ask who has the ownership of the trust estate. His answer to this problem is that the owner of the trust property is not the beneficiary but the trustee. According to the Korean property law, the ownership cannot be divided into two different legal entities. Even though the trustee cannot take advantage of the trust property, she is still the owner of the trust estate, as the flexibility of the concept of the ownership allows it. As a result, the nature of the beneficiary s right is not proprietary, but only obligatory. When you clear the ownership problem, the next question would be that how to explain the rules of §§ 21, 22(bankruptcy problem). The author argues that the concept of the separate patrimony would be a good candidate for the solution. The separate patrimony means that some part of the property is separated from other part and becomes available for the execution of the creditors who are related to that separated property. Because we already have the institute in our own civil code and the bankruptcy code, it is relatively easy to apply this concept to the trust situation. As the trust property is the separate patrimony within the patrimony in the name of the trustee, the creditors of the trustee cannot levy or execute the trust property and the bankruptcy trustee cannot manage or dispose of the trust property. Lastly, the author suggests the ground of the right to recover the trust property. When the bankruptcy trustee tries to dispose of the trust property, the beneficiary would be the appropriate person to stop the process with the right to restore the trust property. However, the author contends that it would not be easy to interpret that the beneficiary has the right, because (1) the Korean trust code does not give the right in express terms, and (2) the right to return in the bankruptcy code is only allowed to the proprietary rights in principle. The author suggests the new trust code include the article which gives the beneficiary the right to restore the trust property.

Ⅰ. 서론

Ⅱ. 비교법적 검토

Ⅲ. 우리 신탁법상 신탁재산의 귀속주체

Ⅳ. 신탁재산의 특별재산성

Ⅴ. 환취권의 인정근거와 범위

Ⅵ. 결론

참고문헌

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