Melatonin mitigates the adverse effect of hypoxia during myocardial differentiation in mouse embryonic stem cells
- Jae-Hwan Lee Yeong-Min Yoo Bonn Lee SunHwa Jeong Dinh Nam Tran Eui-Bae Jeung
- Journal of Veterinary Science
- 제22권 제4호
- 등재여부 : KCI등재
- 1 - 13 (13 pages)
Background: Hypoxia causes oxidative stress and affects cardiovascular function and the programming of cardiovascular disease. Melatonin promotes antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the correlation between melatonin and hypoxia induction in cardiomyocytes differentiation. Methods: Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) were induced to myocardial differentiation. To demonstrate the influence of melatonin under hypoxia, mESC was pretreated with melatonin and then cultured in hypoxic condition. The cardiac beating ratio of the mESC-derived cardiomyocytes, mRNA and protein expression levels were investigated. Results: Under hypoxic condition, the mRNA expression of cardiac-lineage markers (Brachyury, Tbx20, and cTn1) and melatonin receptor (Mtnr1a) was reduced. The mRNA expression of cTn1 and the beating ratio of mESCs increased when melatonin was treated simultaneously with hypoxia, compared to when only exposed to hypoxia. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α protein decreased with melatonin treatment under hypoxia, and Mtnr1a mRNA expression increased. When the cells were exposed to hypoxia with melatonin treatment, the protein expressions of phospho-extracellular signal-related kinase (p-ERK) and Bcl-2-associated X proteins (Bax) decreased, however, the levels of phospho-protein kinase B (p-Akt), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) proteins, and antioxidant enzymes including Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and catalase were increased. Competitive melatonin receptor antagonist luzindole blocked the melatonin-induced effects. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that hypoxia inhibits cardiomyocytes differentiation and melatonin partially mitigates the adverse effect of hypoxia in myocardial differentiation by regulating apoptosis and oxidative stress through the p-AKT and PI3K pathway.
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