Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of NXP031, an inhibitor of oxidation by specifically binding to the complex of DNA aptamer/vitamin C, on dopaminergic neurons loss and the reaction of microglia in an animal model of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced subchronic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Methods: A subchronic PD mouse model was induced via an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of MPTP 30 mg/kg per day for five days. NXP031 (vitamin C/aptamer at 200 mg/4 mg/kg) and vitamin C at 200 mg/kg were administered via IP injections at one hour after performing MPTP injection. This process was performed for five days. Motor function was then evaluated with pole and rotarod tests, after which an immunohistochemical analysis was performed. Results: NXP031 administration after MPTP injection significantly improved motor functions (via both pole and rotarod tests) compared to the control (MPTP injection only) (p< .001). NXP031 alleviated the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and striatum caused by MPTP injection. It was found to have a neuroprotective effect by reducing microglia activity. Conclusion: NXP031 can improve impaired motor function, showing neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons in the SN and striatum of MPTP-induced subchronic Parkinson’s disease mouse model. Results of this study suggest that NXP031 has potential in future treatments for PD and interventions for nerve recovery.