The Plant-Stress Metabolites, Hexanoic Aacid and Melatonin, Are Potential “Vaccines” for Plant Health Promotion
- Anne J. Anderson Young Cheol Kim
- The Plant Pathology Journal
- 제37권 제5호
- 등재여부 : KCI등재
- 415 - 427 (13 pages)
A plethora of compounds stimulate protective mecha- nisms in plants against microbial pathogens and abiotic stresses. Some defense activators are synthetic com- pounds and trigger responses only in certain protective pathways, such as activation of defenses under regula- tion by the plant regulator, salicylic acid (SA). This review discusses the potential of naturally occurring plant metabolites as primers for defense responses in the plant. The production of the metabolites, hexanoic acid and melatonin, in plants means they are consumed when plants are eaten as foods. Both metabolites prime stronger and more rapid activation of plant defense upon subsequent stress. Because these metabolites trig- ger protective measures in the plant they can be considered as “vaccines” to promote plant vigor. Hexanoic acid and melatonin instigate systemic changes in plant metabolism associated with both of the major defense pathways, those regulated by SA- and jasmonic acid (JA). These two pathways are well studied because of their induction by different microbial triggers: necrosis-causing microbial pathogens induce the SA pathway whereas colonization by beneficial microbes stimulates the JA pathway. The plant’s responses to the two me- tabolites, however, are not identical with a major difference being a characterized growth response with melatonin but not hexanoic acid. As primers for plant defense, hexanoic acid and melatonin have the potential to be successfully integrated into vaccination-like strategies to protect plants against diseases and abiotic stresses that do not involve man-made chemicals.