To identify the effect and mechanism of carbon monoxide (CO) on delayed rectifier K+ currents (I K) of human cardiac fibroblasts (HCFs), we used the wholecell mode patch-clamp technique. Application of CO delivered by carbon monoxidereleasing molecule-3 (CORM3) increased the amplitude of outward K+ currents, and diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (a specific I K blocker) inhibited the currents. CORM3- induced augmentation was blocked by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase blockers (L-NG-monomethyl arginine citrate and L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester). Pretreatment with KT5823 (a protein kinas G blocker), 1H-[1,-2,-4] oxadiazolo-[4,-3-a] quinoxalin-1-on (ODQ, a soluble guanylate cyclase blocker), KT5720 (a protein kinase A blocker), and SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase blocker) blocked the CORM3 stimulating effect on I K. In addition, pretreatment with SB239063 (a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase [MAPK] blocker) and PD98059 (a p44/42 MAPK blocker) also blocked the CORM3’s effect on the currents. When testing the involvement of S-nitrosylation, pretreatment of N-ethylmaleimide (a thiol-alkylating reagent) blocked CO-induced I K activation and DL-dithiothreitol (a reducing agent) reversed this effect. Pretreatment with 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1-methylpyridinium-4-yl)-21H,23H porphyrin manganese (III) pentachloride and manganese (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin chloride (superoxide dismutase mimetics), diphenyleneiodonium chloride (an NADPH oxidase blocker), or allopurinol (a xanthine oxidase blocker) also inhibited CO-induced I K activation. These results suggest that CO enhances I K in HCFs through the nitric oxide, phosphorylation by protein kinase G, protein kinase A, and MAPK, S-nitrosylation and reduction/oxidation (redox) signaling pathways.
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