Identification, Characterization, and Efficacy Evaluation of Bacillus velezensis for Shot-Hole Disease Biocontrol in Flowering Cherry
Though information exists regarding the pathogenesis of the shot-hole disease (SH) in flowering cherry (FC), there has been a lack of research focusing on SH management. Therefore, here, we investigated the inhibitory activities of antagonistic bacteria against SH pathogens both in vitro and in vivo as well as their biochemical characteristics and bioactive compounds. Two biosurfactant- producing bacterial antagonists, identified as Bacillus velezensis strains JCK-1618 and JCK-1696, exhibited the best effects against the growth of both bacterial and fungal SH pathogens in vitro through their cell-free culture filtrates (CFCFs). These two strains also strongly inhibited the growth of the pathogens via the action of their antimicrobial diffusible compounds and antimicrobial volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Crude enzymes, solvent extracts, and biosurfactants of the two strains exhibited antimicrobial activities. Liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization timeof- flight mass spectrometric analysis of the partially purified active fractions revealed that the two antagonists produced three cyclic lipopeptides, including iturin A, fengycin A, and surfactin, and a polyketide, oxydifficidin. In a detached leaf assay, pre-treatment and co-treatment of FC leaves with the CFCFs led to a large reduction in the severity of the leaf spots caused by Epicoccum tobaicum and Bukholderia contaminans, respectively. In addition, the two antagonists produced indole-3-acetic acid, siderophore, and a series of hydrolytic enzymes, along with the formation of a substantial biofilm. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the antimicrobial activities of the diffusible compounds and VOCs of B. velezensis against the SH pathogens and their efficiency in the biocontrol of SH.
Materials and Methods
Conflicts of Interest
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