To solve problems related to public affairs, or matters concerning the public's interests and benefits, different governments, policymakers, professionals and the general public may put emphasis on different particular levels, areas or aspects. Some emphasise on policy and plan, some emphasise on creative invention, design and implementation, while some emphasise on the management and maintenance matters. Some may try to take a more comprehensive and inclusive way to consider all of these levels, areas and aspects. However, most of the time the results of these so-called comprehensive and inclusive ways is not so satisfactory since there is a lack of centre ? core, hub, focus ? to link different emphases together. Borrowing case studies in public toilets, this paper urges a balanced consideration on three different levels: plan, implementation, and management. Taking "users" as the centre to link these three levels of considerations together, the paper initiates a new user-oriented model for planning, implementing and managing public affairs.
CASE STUDIES: PUBLIC TOILETS
BIASED PERCEPTIONS AND PRACTICES
DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES
CHANGING WANTS AND NEEDS
THREE LEVELS OF WORK