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KCI우수등재 학술저널

백제 후기 벽주건물지 유형과 전개

본고에서는 백제 후기(웅진・사비기) 중심지로서 벽주건물지가 주로 확인되고 있는 공주・부여・익산지역의 건물지 현황을 파악하고 구조를 살펴본 뒤, 개별 유형을 설정하여 각 유형별, 지역별 분포 현황과 통계적 분석을 통해 유의미한 속성을 도출하고 이를 바탕으로 각 유형별 건물지의 형태와 기능의 변화 양상을 살펴보았다. 벽주건물지 형식은 크게 3가지 유형과 특수형으로 구분하였으며, 공주지역에서는 정지산과 공산성 등 핵심유적에 집중 분포하고 있다. 정지산과 공산성에서 벽주건물지는 건물지 배치에 분명한 계획성과 유형별 위계 차이가 있는 것으로 판단되며, 이들 핵심 유적을 제외한 지역은 여전히 수혈건물이 사용되었다. 부여지역에서 초기 유적이 위치하고 있는 부소산 남동쪽 쌍북리 일대에는 벽주(벽식)건물지와 가구식 굴립주건물이 주로 위치하고 있으며, 부소산 남서쪽의 관북리 일대에는 가구식 초석건물의 비중이 높게 확인된다. 각 유형의 벽주건물지의 변화상을 살펴봤을 때 1유형은 건물지 외곽으로 4개의 돌출된 기둥이 벽에서 점차 멀어지는 경향성을 보이며, 어미기둥(동지주)의 경우 이른 시기에는 명확하게 위치하다가 점차 확인되지 않는다. 2-1유형은 구가 단절된 부분이 보이지 않는 형태에서 구가 단절되고 출입구가 명확해지는 모습을 보인다. 2-2유형은 웅진기에는 중요 건물로 사용되나 사비기에는 초석건물로 대체되어 그 수도 감소하고 크기도 작아진다. 3유형은 구조가 단순하여 평면형태보다는 기둥 설치 방식의 변화상이 관찰되는데 A-가와 A-나 형식이 이른 시기부터 확인되며, A-마 형식이 가장 늦은 것으로 확인되었다.

This paper examines the current state and structures of the building sites in Gongju, Buyeo, and Iksan, the central areas of the late Baekje period (Ungjin and Sabi periods) where pillar-wall buildings are primarily found, and defines the individual types of walled buildings. The significant attributes of each building type are derived based on their distribution in each region and statistical analyses, upon which the changes in the form and function of each type of building site are examined. The walled building sites were categorized into three types and an additional special type. In Gongju, they were concentrated in key archaeological sites such as Jeongjisan and Gongsanseong Fortress. The pillar-wall buildings at Jeongjisan and Gongsanseong Fortress, where walls supported superstructures like roofs, were judged to have been clearly planned, displaying hierarchical differences in the layout of the building site. Meanwhile, pit-dwelling structures, created by digging the ground to form the floor and erecting pillars, were still used in areas other than these core sites. Regarding the Buyeo region, at Ssangbuk-ri, located southeast of Busosan Mountain, the earliest features were found to consist of pillar-wall buildings and ground or lifted floor buildings of the post-and-lintel construction style, erected by driving the bottoms of pillars into the ground. In contrast, the Gwanbuk-ri site, situated southwest of Busosan Mountain, seems to have been dominated by foundation stone buildings of the post-and-lintel construction style, erected by using flat and carved stones under pillars erected on the ground. Although this might be due to the spatial arrangement of buildings within the city, it was judged to more likely reflect architectural changes over time. Statistical analysis showed that pillar-wall buildings became increasingly formalized from the Ungjin period to the Sabi period, with the sizes of the first and second types being larger than the third type. In particular, Type 1 pillar-wall buildings were all square-shaped, and there was no significant difference in area from the Ungjin period to the Sabi period, making them the most formalized of all the types of pillar-wall buildings. Also, the area of the (elongated) rectangular pillar-wall buildings in the Gongju region was found to be significantly larger than that of the buildings in the Buyeo region. This difference is believed to be related to the fact that the elongated (rectangular) buildings from the Sabi period were in the form of foundation stone buildings of the post-and-lintel construction style. When examining the changes undergone by each type of pillar-wall building sites, Type 1 showed a tendency for the four protruding columns to gradually move away from the walls, and the oemi-gidoong (i.e. the pillar located in the center of the side wall), which had been clearly present in the early buildings, gradually disappeared. Type 2-1 initially featuring a whole-connected drain but began to deminstrate disconnection, with the doorway becoming more prominent. Type 2-2 was an important building type in the Ungjin period but began to be replaced by foundation stone buildings in the Sabi period, during which its number and size reduced. Type 3 was simple in terms of structure, and evidenced changes in the method of column erection, rather than the plane shape. A-I and A-II were identified from the earliest period, and the A-V types were identified in the latest period. Through a comprehensive review of the distribution and size of the buildings, it is possible to propose that the changes in the nature of the building sites would have proceeded differently for each type, with the Type 1 buildings continuously used as important buildings such as national facilities from the Ungjin period to the Sabi period. It is inferred that the function of the third type changed, and they were used for general residential purposes, except for a few cases.

Ⅰ. 머리말

Ⅱ. 벽주건물지 구조와 유형

Ⅲ. 벽주건물지 분포 현황과 분석

Ⅳ. 벽주건물지의 전개 양상

Ⅴ. 맺음말

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